Its reading is always made the Sabbath preceding Purim. It extracted from the paracha " Ki-Tétsé ", and draft of the mitsva to remember Amalek and his harmful and destructive actions with the aim of diverting the Jewish people of his Creator to annihilate him.
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For that purpose, we received the positive command to keep in us the aversion of Amalek and what it represents, as well as the negative command to forget him never.
Sabbath Zakhor is thus in direct relation with the party of Purim which celebrates the victory of the Jewish people against Haman who was a descendant of Amalek. Our Wise men declared: the memory of Amalek must be mentioned during the reading of this paracha then erased during the party of Purim.
Some people think that this public reading becomes then an obligation of the Torah, although it was established by ' Hakhamim.
According to this opinion, some people think that the obligation to listen to this reading also falls to the women, because the mitsva to remember Amalek is not connected in itself with a precise time.